Empowerment: the emperor's new clothes.

  title={Empowerment: the emperor's new clothes.},
  author={Chris Argyris},
  journal={Harvard business review},
  volume={76 3},
Everyone talks about empowerment, but it's not working. CEOs subtly undermine empowerment. Employees are often unprepared or unwilling to assume the new responsibilities it entails. Even change professionals stifle it. When empowerment is used as the ultimate criteria of success in organizations, it covers up many of the deeper problems that they must overcome. To understand this apparent contradiction, the author explores two kinds of commitment: external and internal. External commitment--or… CONTINUE READING

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