Empirical Models of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Nightside Venus Ionosphere

@article{Brace1979EmpiricalMO,
  title={Empirical Models of the Electron Temperature and Density in the Nightside Venus Ionosphere},
  author={Larry H. Brace and R. F. Theis and Hasso Bernhard Otto Niemann and Hans G. Mayr and Walter R. Hoegy and Andrew F. Nagy},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={205},
  pages={102 - 105}
}
Empirical models of the electron temperature and electron density of the late afternoon and nightside Venus ionosphere have been derived from Pioneer Venus measurements acquired between 10 December 1978 and 23 March 1979. The models describe the average ionosphere conditions near 18�N latitude between 150 and 700 kilometers altitude for solar zenith angles of 80� to 180�. The average index of solar flux was 200. A major feature of the density model is the factor of 10 decrease beyond 90… 
Empirical models of the electron temperature and density in the Venus ionosphere
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Data from the first year of operation of the Pioneer Venus orbiter retarding potential analyzer are presented, showing the variation with solar zenith angle of median values of ion and electron
Initial Observations of the Nightside Ionosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
TLDR
It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts.
The dynamic behavior of the Venus ionosphere in response to solar wind interactions
Measurements of electron density and temperature by the Pioneer Venus orbiter electron temperature probe (OETP) are used to describe the dynamic behavior of the Venus ionosphere and to begin to
On the maintenance of the Venus nightside ionosphere: Electron precipitation and plasma transport
Suprathermal integral electron spectra between 5 and 45 eV measured by the Pioneer Venus orbiter RPA are presented for the Venus nightside ionosphere. The observed integral electron flux is
Holes in the nightside ionosphere of Venus
Measurements of electron density and temperature by the Pioneer Venus orbiter electron temperature probe have been employed to examine the characteristics and morphology of ionospheric holes in the
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TLDR
Elevated temperatutres observed at times of low solar wind flux exhibit height profiles that are consistent with a model in which less than 5 percent of the solar wind energy is deposited at the ionopause and is conducted downward through an unmagnetized ionosphere to the region below 200 kilomneters where electron cooling to the neutral atmosphere proceeds rapidly.
Initial Observations of the Nightside Ionosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
TLDR
It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts.
Thermal Structure and Major Ion Composition of the Venus Ionosphere: First RPA Results from Venus Orbiter
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TLDR
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The first in situ measurements of the composition of the ionosphere of Venus are provided by independent Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus bits and orbiter
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Possible models for the nighttime Venus ionosphere are developed and compared with observations obtained from Mariner 5. The preferred model assumes the presence of a light reactive ion, such as He+
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