Empire and the Circulation of Frontier Intelligence: Qing Conceptions of the Ottomans

  title={Empire and the Circulation of Frontier Intelligence: Qing Conceptions of the Ottomans},
  author={Matthew W. Mosca},
  journal={Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies},
  pages={147 - 207}
To trace changes in the circulation of knowledge between Inner Asia and the wider Qing empire, MATTHEW W. MOSCA analyzes the case of Khungghar-a term used by Mongols for the Ottoman Empire but poorly understood by Han Chinese. From 1644 to roughly 1755, Han Chinese officials and geographers were largely unfamiliar with information possessed by the Manchus and Mongols managing the empire's inland frontiers. From 1755 to 1799, the transmission of intelligence between these two groups increased… 

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