Empathy and justice motivation

  title={Empathy and justice motivation},
  author={Martin L. Hoffman},
  journal={Motivation and Emotion},
  • M. Hoffman
  • Published 1 June 1990
  • Psychology
  • Motivation and Emotion
Empathic distress is defined as an aversive feeling contingent on another's physical, emotional, or economic distress. The paper (1) summarizes a developmental scheme consisting of four stages of empathic distress; (2) suggests that causal attributions may partly transform empathic distress into sympathy, empathic anger, feeling of injustice, and guilt feeling; (3) notes the evidence that these empathic affects often serve to motivate moral behavior, and therefore that they qualify as moral… 
Empathy as an Antecedent of Social Justice Attitudes and Perceptions
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Varieties of Empathy and Moral Agency
Contemporary literature includes a wide variety of definitions of empathy. At the same time, the revival of sentimentalism has proposed that empathy serves as a necessary criterion of moral agency.
Once Again with Feeling: Empathy in Deliberative Discourse
In Upheavals of Thought, Martha C. Nussbaum asks, "What positive contribution do emotions, as such, make to ethical deliberation, both personal and public?" (298). Her answer to that question is
Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.
The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature and can also predict a variety of empathy disorders.
Empathy in adolescence: Relations with emotion awareness and social roles.
Outcomes demonstrate that, besides social roles, emotion awareness is an important factor for adaptive empathic reactions, whereas emotion dysregulation might cause distress when witnessing the negative feelings of others.
Restoring the Victim: Emotional Reactions, Justice Beliefs, and Support for Reparation and Punishment
Psychological responses to criminal wrongdoing have primarily focused on the offender, particularly on how (and why) offender punishment satisfies people’s need for justice. However, the restoration
Affective empathy as core moral agency: psychopathy, autism and reason revisited
Empathy has become a common point of debate in moral psychology. Recent developments in psychiatry, neurosciences and social psychology have led to the revival of sentimentalism, and the ‘empathy
Attachment and the Development of Moral Emotions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
The present systematic literature review was designed to synthesize current empirical contributions that explore the link between attachment and the development of moral emotions during childhood and adolescence to contribute to the understanding of an empathic, healthy development in contrast to the alienation and bullying affecting the youth's emotional, relational and academic lives.
Empathy, the Easily Aroused Child and Antidotes for Bullying
SUMMARY This article presents the results of a qualitative interview study of the experience of empathy in the easily aroused child. Participants were asked about their perception and vicarious


Empathic emotions and justice in society
Empathy is defined as an affect more appropriate to another's situation than to one's own. The paper (i) summarizes different modes of empathic affect arousal; (ii) shows how empathic affect may
Toward an Integration of Kohlberg’s and Hoffman’s Moral Development Theories
This article takes an initial step toward integration of Kohlberg’s and Hoffman’s theories of morality and moral development. Kohlberg’s and Hoffman’s theories provide important and complementary
Thinking about justice and dealing with one's own privileges: A study on existential guilt.
Resources are distributed unequally. Differences in wealth, prestige, education, freedom, or power are common, within and between families, organizations, social classes, countries, etc. Historians,
The Justice Motive in Social Behavior: Introduction
The articles in this issue enable one to examine the assumptions social observers have employed to understand the role which “justice” plays in human endeavors. Justice is seen by some as a
Child rearing and children's prosocial initiations toward victims of distress.
Maternal rearing behavior was examined in relation to children's reparation for transgressions and altruism as bystanders to distress in others and affectively delivered explanations regarding the distresses their children had caused to others were associated withChildren's reparations for transgression.
Children’s Use of Justice Principles in Allocation Situations
This chapter is primarily concerned with the development of distributive justice in children. It will concentrate on the knowledge the child can activate in hypothetical situations and will discuss
The Basic Dialogue and the Capacity for Empathy
In reviewing recent experimental studies of altruism in young children, including their own work, Yarrow et al. noted the hazards of interpreting findings which depend on relating experimentally
Conscience, personality, and socialization techniques.
Two groups of 7th-grade children with internal moral orientations were selected on the basis of moral judgment responses: one whose judgments showed concern for human consequences of behavior and cons, and one who showed indifference to such consequences.
Positive and negative attitudinal affect established by classical conditioning.
By pairing meaningful adjectives with the onset and offset of electric shock, an attempt was made to establish two altitudes, one based on negative affect and one based on positive affect, within