Emotions as Within or Between People? Cultural Variation in Lay Theories of Emotion Expression and Inference

@article{Uchida2009EmotionsAW,
  title={Emotions as Within or Between People? Cultural Variation in Lay Theories of Emotion Expression and Inference},
  author={Yukiko Uchida and Sarah S. M. Townsend and Hazel Rose Markus and Hilary B. Bergsieker},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={2009},
  volume={35},
  pages={1427 - 1439}
}
Four studies using open-ended and experimental methods test the hypothesis that in Japanese contexts, emotions are understood as between people, whereas in American contexts, emotions are understood as primarily within people. Study 1 analyzed television interviews of Olympic athletes. When asked about their relationships, Japanese athletes used significantly more emotion words than American athletes. This difference was not significant when questions asked directly about athletes' feelings. In… 

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