Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions

  title={Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions},
  author={Anne J. Blood and Robert J. Zatorre and Patrick Bermudez and Alan C. Evans},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
Neural correlates of the often-powerful emotional responses to music are poorly understood. Here we used positron emission tomography to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes related to affective responses to music. Ten volunteers were scanned while listening to six versions of a novel musical passage varying systematically in degree of dissonance. Reciprocal CBF covariations were observed in several distinct paralimbic and neocortical regions as a function of dissonance and of perceived… 

Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion

  • A. BloodR. Zatorre
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.

Music and emotion: electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music.

Findings show that Fm theta is modulated by emotion more strongly than previously believed.

Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

Emotional responses to unpleasant music correlates with damage to the parahippocampal cortex.

In this study, pleasant and unpleasant music was presented to 17 patients with variable excisions of the medial temporal lobe, as well as to 19 matched controls; the same patients judged consonant music to be pleasant, and were able to judge music as happy or sad.

Mapping Aesthetic Musical Emotions in the Brain

Functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions.

Electroencephalographic dynamics of musical emotion perception revealed by independent spectral components

The resultant emotion-related component activations that were less interfered by the activities from other brain processes complement previous EEG studies of emotion perception to music.

Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change

Empirical support is provided for the proposal that change in basic musical features is a fundamental trigger of emotional responses in listeners.

Investigating emotion with music: An fMRI study

In all of the mentioned structures, except the hippocampus, activations increased over time during the presentation of the musical stimuli, indicating that the effects of emotion processing have temporal dynamics; the temporal dynamics have so far mainly been neglected in the functional imaging literature.

Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

The results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caUDate activity.

Pleasurable emotional response to music: A case of neurodegenerative generalized auditory agnosia

The case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when exposed to music is presented, with implications for the evolving understanding of music perception, music misperception, music memory, and music-associated emotion.



Frontal brain asymmetry and emotional reactivity: a biological substrate of affective style.

For subjects whose frontal asymmetry was stable across the 3-week period, greater left frontal activation was associated with reports of more intense positive affect in response to the positive films, whereas greater right frontal activationwas associated with more intense reports of negative affect in Response to the negative film clips.

An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology.

  • C. Krumhansl
  • Psychology
    Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale
  • 1997
Physiological measures were recorded while listners heard two excerpts chosen to represent each of three emotions: sad, fear, and happy, and found significant differences among the excerpts.

Emotional activation of limbic circuitry in elderly normal subjects in a PET study.

Emotional activation in normal elderly subjects was associated with increases in blood flow in limbic and paralimbic brain structures and may be specific to the emotion being elicited but probably involves complex sensory, association, and memory circuitry.

Brain activity during transient sadness and happiness in healthy women.

Transient sadness and happiness in healthy volunteer women are accompanied by significant changes in regional brain activity in the limbic system, as well as other brain regions, which have implications for understanding the neural substrates of both normal and pathological emotion.

Identification of Emotion in a Dichotic Listening Task: Event-Related Brain Potential and Behavioral Findings

Since the behavioral evidence supports the right-hemisphere hypothesis for emotion perception, behavioral and ERP asymmetries evident in this task reflect separable patterns of brain lateralization.

Neuroanatomical correlates of happiness, sadness, and disgust.

This study identifies regions of the brain that participate in happiness, sadness, and disgust, regions that distinguish between positive and negative emotions, and regions that depend on both the elicitor and valence of emotion or their interaction.

Music Structure and Emotional Response: Some Empirical Findings

Eighty-three music listeners completed a questionnaire in which thev provided information about the occurrence of a range of physical reactions while listening to music. Shivers down the spine,

Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch

It is concluded that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

Emotion-related learning in patients with social and emotional changes associated with frontal lobe damage.

It is suggested that a difficulty in modifying responses, especially when followed by negative consequences, as manifested in these simple laboratory tests, may contribute to the inappropriate behaviour shown in daily life by patients with frontal lobe damage.