Emotional reactions to achievement outcomes: Is it really best to expect the worst?

  title={Emotional reactions to achievement outcomes: Is it really best to expect the worst?},
  author={Margaret A. Marshall and Jonathon D. Brown},
  journal={Cognition and Emotion},
  pages={43 - 63}
Expectancies of success are widely thought to influence people's emotional reactions to performance outcomes: The lower one's expectancies, the more delighted one should be following success and the less disappointed one should be following failure. Although this proposition has been accepted almost as a truism, a review of the literature reveals that it has not been tested adequately. In this paper, we report two tests of this hypothesis, finding little evidence that low expectancies are… 
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