Emotional reactions to achievement outcomes: Is it really best to expect the worst?

  title={Emotional reactions to achievement outcomes: Is it really best to expect the worst?},
  author={Margaret A. Marshall and Jonathon D. Brown},
  journal={Cognition and Emotion},
  pages={43 - 63}
Expectancies of success are widely thought to influence people's emotional reactions to performance outcomes: The lower one's expectancies, the more delighted one should be following success and the less disappointed one should be following failure. Although this proposition has been accepted almost as a truism, a review of the literature reveals that it has not been tested adequately. In this paper, we report two tests of this hypothesis, finding little evidence that low expectancies are… 

High self-esteem buffers negative feedback: Once more with feeling

In this article, I report three studies showing that global self-esteem influences people's emotional reactions to negative outcomes. Using social outcomes as well as personal ones (Study 1),

Anticipating one's troubles: the costs and benefits of negative expectations.

Expecting one's troubles may be a poor strategy for maximizing positive affect because people felt worse when they were expecting a negative than a positive event; but once the event occurred, their prior expectations had no measurable influence on how they felt.

Looking on the bright side: children's knowledge about the benefits of positive versus negative thinking.

Individual differences in child and parental optimism and hope predicted children's knowledge about thought-emotion connections on some measures, including their beliefs about the emotional benefits of thinking positively in negative situations.

Thinking and feeling in the People's Republic of China: testing the generality of the "laws of emotion".

It is concluded that attribution-emotion linkages have cross-cultural validity, and that pride is maximized when success is attributed to high ability.

Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.

Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment and feelings of frustration and anger in all experiments, which suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions.

Unexpected improvement, decline, and stasis: a prediction confidence perspective on achievement success and failure.

Evidence is provided that lay theory violation and damaged prediction confidence have significant and measurable effects on emotion and motivation in response to performance feedback.

Expectations and Realizations: The Role of Expectancies in Achievement Settings

High expectancies of success are widely assumed to have positive effects on performance in achievement situations. However, previous investigations have tended to ignore task difficulty or assume

The thrill of victory, the complexity of defeat: self-esteem and people's emotional reactions to success and failure.

2 investigations that found that self-esteem differences of this sort emerge for emotions that directly implicate the self but not for emotions not directly implicating the self, which is relevant for understanding the nature and functions of self- esteem.

The Optimal Margin of Illusion

This article proposes that optimal psychological functioning is associated with a slight to moderate degree of distortion in one's perception of self and world. Past evidence suggests that

Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states.

A number of apparently diverse personality scales—variously called trait anxiety, neuroticism, ego strength, general maladjustment, repression-sensitization, and social desirability—are reviewed and

Global Self-Esteem and Specific Self-Views as Determinants of People's Reactions to Success and Failure

A critical question in self-esteem research is whether people's reactions to success and failure are guided by their global self-esteem level or by their more specific beliefs about their abilities

When less is more: counterfactual thinking and satisfaction among Olympic medalists.

It is shown that bronze medalists tend to be happier than silver medalists, and the authors attribute these results to the fact that the most compelling counterfactual alternative for the silver medalist is winning the gold, whereas for the bronze medalist it is finishing without a medal.

Self-Esteem and Emotion: Some Thoughts about Feelings

Self-esteem has been linked to a diverse array of positive and negative affective states. The present research explored the nature of these relationships. Study 1 found that self-esteem (as measured

The Effect of Expectations on Satisfaction When Feedback About Performance is Not Provided

This study explores the relationships between expectations that individuals hold prior to their performance, assessments of the performance, and satisfaction with the performance. Past research

Positive illusions and well-being revisited: separating fact from fiction.

The theoretical model of how people's perceptions in these domains are positively biased is reviewed, certain misconceptions in its empirical application are correct, and criticisms made by Colvin and Block are addressed.

Contributions of Motivational Orientation to Appraisal and Emotion

This study examined the role of affiliative orientation as a dispositional antecedent of appraisals of motivational relevance and related emotions. Individuals high and low on affiliative orientation