Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative Importance of the Actual and the Ideal Self

@article{Malr2011EmotionalBA,
  title={Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative Importance of the Actual and the Ideal Self},
  author={Lucia Mal{\"a}r and Harley Krohmer and Wayne D. Hoyer and Bettina Nyffenegger},
  journal={Journal of Marketing},
  year={2011},
  volume={75},
  pages={35 - 52}
}
Creating emotional brand attachment is a key branding issue in today's marketing world. One way to accomplish this is to match the brand's personality with the consumer's self. A key question, however, is whether the brand's personality should match the consumer's actual self or the consumer's ideal self. On the basis of two empirical studies of 167 brands (evaluated by 1329 and 980 consumers), the authors show that the implications of self-congruence for consumers’ emotional brand attachment… 

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