Emotion felt by the listener and expressed by the music: literature review and theoretical perspectives

@article{Schubert2013EmotionFB,
  title={Emotion felt by the listener and expressed by the music: literature review and theoretical perspectives},
  author={Emery Schubert},
  journal={Frontiers in Psychology},
  year={2013},
  volume={4}
}
In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson (2002) distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: “internal locus of emotion” (IL), and the emotion the music is expressing, here: “external locus of emotion” (EL). This paper tabulates 16 comparisons of felt versus expressed emotions in music published in the decade 2003–2012 consisting of 19 studies/experiments and provides some theoretical perspectives. The key findings were that (1) IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Locus of emotion influences psychophysiological reactions to music

TLDR
A higher mean response in psychophysiological measures for the “perceived” than the ”felt” task is found, suggesting that the focus on one’s self distracts from the music, leading to weaker bodily reactions during the ‘felt’ task.

Sadness and happiness are amplified in solitary listening to music

TLDR
Evidence is found for an amplification of perceived emotion in the solitary listening condition, i.e. happy music was rated as happier and more arousing when nobody else was around and, in an analogous manner, sad music was perceived as sadder.

Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions

Perceived and Induced Emotion Responses to Popular Music: Categorical and Dimensional Models

Music both conveys and evokes emotions, and although both phenomena are widely studied, the difference between them is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to examine the difference between

Music Communicates Affects, Not Basic Emotions – A Constructionist Account of Attribution of Emotional Meanings to Music

TLDR
This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music’s ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind, in order to solve past conflicting findings.

Emotions of music listening in Finland and in India: Comparison of an individualistic and a collectivistic culture

Music is appreciated for emotional reasons across cultures, but knowledge on the cross-cultural similarities and differences of music-evoked emotions is still sparse. The current study compared

A comparative study of the perception of music emotion between adults with and without visual impairment

In music listening, limitations on visual experience affect a listener’s abstract information processing and conceptualization of the music. The aim of this study is to examine the differences in

The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

TLDR
It is argued that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment ofSad music by intensifying feelings of being moved, and the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved.

Emotions, Mechanisms, and Individual Differences in Music Listening

Emotions have been found to play a paramount role in both everyday music experiences and health applications of music, but the applicability of musical emotions depends on: 1) which emotions music

Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

TLDR
This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling, and that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 188 REFERENCES

The influence of emotion, locus of emotion and familiarity upon preference in music

This study reports an empirical investigation of the influence of felt (internal locus — IL) emotion versus expressed (external locus — EL) emotion upon preference in music. Sixty-fve participants

Loved music can make a listener feel negative emotions

This paper tested the applicability of cognitive unit activation (CUA) theory to explain the paradoxical enjoyment of felt negative emotions in music. CUA refers to preference for activation of

Emotion perceived and emotion felt: Same and different

Abstract The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships and differences between emotion perceived (i.e., the emotional quality expressed by music) and emotion felt (i.e., the

Quantification of Gabrielsson's relationships between felt and expressed emotions in music

This study examines empirically the relationship between the emotional quality one can attribute to musical stimuli (expressed emotion) and the subjective emotional response one can have as a result

Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement.

TLDR
The authors addressed this question by progressively characterizing music-induced emotions in 4 interrelated studies by introducing a domain-specific device to measure musically induced emotions--the Geneva Emotional Music Scale.

Relations Between Musical Structures and Perceived and Felt Emotions

There are two kinds of musical emotions: perceived emotion (expressed by musical pieces) and felt emotion (induced in listeners). In this study, we hypothesized that the emotion perceived by people

Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music

Music may arouse intense emotions in listeners, but little is known about the circumstances that contribute to such reactions. Here we report a listening experiment that investigated the roles of

Negative Emotion in Music: What is the Attraction? A Qualitative Study

Why do people listen to music that evokes negative emotions? This paper presents five comparative interviews conducted to examine this question. Individual differences psychology and mood management

Emotion perceived and emotion felt: Same or different?

A distinction is made between emotion perception, that is, to perceive emotional expression in music without necessarily being affected oneself, and emotion induction, that is, listeners’ emotional

Feelings and Perceptions of Happiness and Sadness Induced by Music: Similarities, Differences, and Mixed Emotions

The authors examined similarities and differences between (1) listeners’ perceptions of emotions conveyed by 30-s pieces of music and (2) their emotional responses to the same pieces. Using identical
...