Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing.

@article{Bradley2001EmotionAM,
  title={Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing.},
  author={Margaret M. Bradley and Maurizio Codispoti and Bruce N. Cuthbert and Peter J. Lang},
  journal={Emotion},
  year={2001},
  volume={1 3},
  pages={
          276-98
        }
}
Emotional reactions are organized by underlying motivational states--defensive and appetitive--that have evolved to promote the survival of individuals and species. Affective responses were measured while participants viewed pictures with varied emotional and neutral content. Consistent with the motivational hypothesis, reports of the strongest emotional arousal, largest skin conductance responses, most pronounced cardiac deceleration, and greatest modulation of the startle reflex occurred when… Expand
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Women showed a broad disposition to respond with greater defensive reactivity to aversive pictures, regardless of specific content, whereas increased appetitive activation was apparent for men only when viewing erotica. Expand
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