Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

  title={Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.},
  author={Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim and E. A. Alsema},
  journal={Environmental science \& technology},
  volume={42 6},
Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin… 

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