Emerging medication for the treatment of male hypogonadism

@article{Corona2012EmergingMF,
  title={Emerging medication for the treatment of male hypogonadism},
  author={Giovanni Corona and Giulia Rastrelli and Linda Vignozzi and Mario Maggi},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs},
  year={2012},
  volume={17},
  pages={239 - 259}
}
Introduction: Since the phenotype and clinical need of the hypogonadal individuals changes dramatically over time, versatile therapies are needed. Areas covered: The authors review the available evidence on possible therapies. Expert opinion: In the case of primary hypogonadism starting early in life, substitution with testosterone (T) is the only choice. For secondary congenital hypogonadism, we recommend starting with gonadotrophins to allow the testes to reach pubertal size. Thereafter, T… 

Pharmacological management of late-onset hypogonadism

The present data indicate that antiestrogens are able to increase testosterone levels without changing gonadotropins or even increasing them, and that TTh is able to improve sexual function and body composition, with more evident results obtained with transdermal and injectable preparations.

The safety of available treatments of male hypogonadism in organic and functional hypogonadism

Considering the significant improvement in body composition, glucose metabolism and sexual activity, TRT should not be limited to ‘organic’ HG, but also offered for ‘functional’.

Emerging medication for the treatment of male hypogonadism

The main treatment of male hypogonadism is T replacement therapy (TRT), but for some of the patients, alternative drugs may be more suitable, and gonadotropins can be started to stimulate testicular growth and spermatogenesis.

The pharmacotherapy of male hypogonadism besides androgens

For primary HG only TRT is advisable, whereas for the secondary form several alternative possibilities can be offered, and the possibility of increasing Leydig cell steroid production, independently from Gn stimulation, seems unreliable.

Phase II drugs currently being investigated for the treatment of hypogonadism

There remains a need for newer therapies that are more cost-effective, preserve ease of use and administration, mitigate undesirable effects and closely mimic physiological levels of testosterone.

Different Medications for Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

Gonadotropins and GnRH, besides inducing secondary sexual characteristics, can also induce testicular maturation and spermatogenesis, and other molecules, such as kisspeptin and neurokinin B agonists, are now under evaluation as new therapeutic options for treating DP.

Risks and Benefits of Late Onset Hypogonadism Treatment: An Expert Opinion

Available evidence suggests that TRT might ameliorate central obesity and glycometabolic control in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and TRT has been associated with an increase in bone mineral density in men with osteoporosis and with an improvement in lean body mass in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy

A large amount of evidence has documented that sexual symptoms are the most specific correlates of T deficiency, supporting the scientific demonstration that LOH does exist according to an “ex-juvantibus” criterion and the efficacy of TTh in non-organic HG and its long term safety.

Male hypogonadism – brief review of symptoms, types and ways of treatment

Hypogonadism of primary, secondary, functional or late-onset origin may be recognised, as it concerns susceptible matter of sexual and reproductive health, it requires special interest of differently clinicians, i.e. endocrinologists, andrologists or urologists.

Diagnosis and treatment of late-onset hypogonadism: systematic review and meta-analysis of TRT outcomes.

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