Emerging hydrovoltaic technology

  title={Emerging hydrovoltaic technology},
  author={Zhuhua Zhang and Xuemei Li and Jun Yin and Ying Xu and Wenwen Fei and Minmin Xue and Qin Wang and Jianxin Zhou and Wanlin Guo},
  journal={Nature Nanotechnology},
Water contains tremendous energy in a variety of forms, but very little of this energy has yet been harnessed. Nanostructured materials can generate electricity on interaction with water, a phenomenon that we term the hydrovoltaic effect, which potentially extends the technical capability of water energy harvesting and enables the creation of self-powered devices. In this Review, starting by describing fundamental properties of water and of water–solid interfaces, we discuss key aspects… 

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