Emerging drugs of abuse.

@article{Nelson2014EmergingDO,
  title={Emerging drugs of abuse.},
  author={Michael E. Nelson and Sean M. Bryant and Steven E. Aks},
  journal={Disease-a-month : DM},
  year={2014},
  volume={60 3},
  pages={
          110-32
        }
}
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TLDR
There is a need to create awareness regarding the risks and the health hazards caused by these novel substances as well as to develop and design new prevention approaches that are able to attract the attention of the young population.
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TLDR
Proof of concept that surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse can be performed whilst conducting routine drug of abuse testing in patients is performed, and South Asians had significantly higher rates of using opiates such as heroin, methadone, and codeine.
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TLDR
Close scrutiny could help clarify a patient’s opioid tolerance level by reviewing prescription drug history, and additive or synergistic effects from untested synthetic compounds, such as cathinones (bath-salts) or JWH-type cannabinoids, increasingly are the unsung culprits causing or contributing to death.
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TLDR
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The Role of Public Health in Combatting Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in Adolescents.
Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)
TLDR
The novelty of NPS, their ambiguous legal status, ability to evade toxicological tests, swift adaptation to legal restrictions, global Internet marketing, and scant public knowledge of their adverse effects are among the key drivers of this twenty-first century phenomenon.
Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS): Focus on the Rewarding and Reinforcing Properties of Cannabimimetics and Amphetamine-Like Stimulants
TLDR
The neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of dependence associated with “Spice” use, will be described and reliable data regarding the abuse potential of these compounds will be gathered.
Multiple fatalities involving a new designer drug: para-methyl-4-methylaminorex.
TLDR
The presence of 4,40-DMAR was detected in toxicology samples submitted in a number of drug abuse deaths; some of which were directly associated with the police seizure of tablet items and further work is required to unambiguously identify the species identified in these cases.
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References

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Alternative Drugs of Abuse
TLDR
This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Analytical Toxicology of Emerging Drugs of Abuse—An Update
TLDR
This review summarizes procedures for analysis of these drugs of abuse published from January 2009 to January 2012 covering the following classes of emerging drugs of Abuse:keto-amphetamines, pyrrolidinophenones, tryptamines, and synthetic cannabinoids.
Emergency Physicians’ Knowledge of Cannabinoid Designer Drugs
TLDR
Clinically active EPs are unfamiliar with synthetic cannabinoids, and even those who stated they had heard of synthetic cannabinoids answered poorly on basic knowledge questions.
Analytical Toxicology of Emerging Drugs of Abuse
TLDR
This review summarizes the analytical toxicology of the following classes of emerging drugs of abuse: piperazines, phenethylamines (2Cs and FLYs), 4-substituted amphetamines, β-keto-amphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamine, pyrrolidinophenones, and synthetic cannabinoids.
‘Legal Highs’ – novel and emerging psychoactive drugs: a chemical overview for the toxicologist
TLDR
‘Legal highs’ from the phenylethylamine, cocaine, tryptamine and phencyclidine classes are increasingly being marketed and, in the majority of cases, little is cited in the literature on their true chemical identity, pharmacology or toxicology.
National drug control policy and prescription drug abuse: facts and fallacies.
TLDR
The multiple reasons for continued escalation of prescription drug abuse and overuse are lack of education among all segments including physicians, pharmacists, and the public; ineffective and incoherent prescription monitoring programs with lack of funding for a national prescription monitoring program NASPER; and a reactive approach on behalf of numerous agencies.
2C or Not 2C: Phenethylamine Designer Drug Review
TLDR
Treatment of 2C intoxication is primarily supportive, but immediate action is required in the context of excited delirium, hyperthermia, and seizure activity.
Piperazine compounds as drugs of abuse.
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