Thirty-six extremely low birth weight (less than 1000 g birth weight) children received neurodevelopmental testing in infancy (mean age = 19.1 months), and again in early childhood (mean age = 46.5 months). Children were categorized into a high-risk group (n = 20) if bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or Grades III or IV intracranial hemorrhage were present or a low-risk group (n = 16) if neither were present. Using standardized testing and neuromotor examination, 24 (67%) of 36 children showed normal infant development. Only 11 (31%) of 36 children (P less than .005) had normal development upon reassessment in early childhood. A decline in developmental status occurred in both groups. This indicates that for the extremely low birth weight population, normal infant development is poorly predictive of continued normal development. With or without major complications, extremely low birth weight places children at substantial risk for ongoing and emerging developmental problems with age.