EBV and KSHV are both gamma-herpesviruses which express multiple viral microRNAs. Various methods have been used to investigate the functions of these microRNAs, largely through identification of microRNA target genes. Surprisingly, these related viruses do not share significant sequence homology in their microRNAs. A number of reports have described functions of EBV and KSHV microRNA targets, however only three experimentally validated target genes have been shown to be targeted by microRNAs from both viruses. More sensitive methods to identify microRNA targets have predicted approximately 60% of host targets could be shared by EBV and KSHV microRNAs, but by targeting different sequences in the host targets. In this review, we explore the similarities of microRNA functions and targets of these related viruses.