Emergent Braided Matter of Quantum Geometry

@article{BilsonThompson2012EmergentBM,
  title={Emergent Braided Matter of Quantum Geometry},
  author={Sundance O. Bilson-Thompson and Jonathan Hackett and Louis H. Kauffman and Yidun Wan},
  journal={Symmetry Integrability and Geometry-methods and Applications},
  year={2012},
  volume={8},
  pages={014}
}
We review and present a few new results of the program of emergent matter as braid excitations of quantum geometry that is represented by braided ribbon networks. These networks are a generalisation of the spin networks proposed by Penrose and those in models of background independent quantum gravity theories, such as Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin Foam models. This program has been developed in two parallel but complimen- tary schemes, namely the trivalent and tetravalent schemes. The former… 
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