Emergence of Oblong School Shape: Models and Empirical Data of Fish

@article{Hemelrijk2010EmergenceOO,
  title={Emergence of Oblong School Shape: Models and Empirical Data of Fish},
  author={Charlotte K. Hemelrijk and Hanno Hildenbrandt and J. A. Reinders and Eize J. Stamhuis},
  journal={Ethology},
  year={2010},
  volume={116},
  pages={1099-1112}
}
The main benefit of the oblong shape of schools of fish is supposed to be the protection against predation. Models of self-organised travelling groups have shown that this shape may arise as a side effect of the avoidance of collisions with group members. These models were developed for schools of fish in open water, whereas the oblong shape of schools of real fish has mostly been observed in schools in tanks. Therefore, it is not known how school shape in a tank originates neither in models… 

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