Reconstructing geographic and demographic scenarios of dissemination in wind-dispersed<lb>invasive pathogens of crops is still poorly investigated. Here, we aimed at deciphering history<lb>of invasion of the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Africa, including initial<lb>introduction into the continent, subsequent pathways of continental spread and demographical<lb>events associated. We analysed the Africa population structure based on microsatellites<lb>markers, on 9 populations from 7 eastern and western African countries. We carried out ABC<lb>analyses in order to test different competing scenarios of between-population historical<lb>divergences, and to estimate demographical parameters describing effective size variations<lb>during the African invasion. Our results strongly support a scenario of single introduction<lb>event into Africa, and they also suggest that it was followed by both regular and stochastic<lb>events of jumps of the disease across the continent. Huge effective population sizes were<lb>estimated for established populations, which contrasts with severe past bottlenecks, reflecting<lb>that drastic demographical fluctuations characterize this continental stochastic spread.