Embryological origin of the endocardium and derived valve progenitor cells: from developmental biology to stem cell-based valve repair.

The cardiac valves are targets of both congenital and acquired diseases. The formation of valves during embryogenesis (i.e., valvulogenesis) originates from endocardial cells lining the myocardium. These cells undergo an endothelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferate and migrate within an extracellular matrix. This leads to the formation of bilateral… (More)