Embracing complexity: Organicism for the 21st century

@article{Gilbert2000EmbracingCO,
  title={Embracing complexity: Organicism for the 21st century},
  author={Scott F. Gilbert and Sahotra Sarkar},
  journal={Developmental Dynamics},
  year={2000},
  volume={219}
}
Organicism (materialistic holism) has provided the philosophical underpinnings for embryology since the time of Kant. It had influenced the founders of developmental mechanics, and the importance of organicism to embryology was explicitly recognized by such figures as O. Hertwig, H. Spemann, R. Harrison, A. M. Dalq, J. Needham, and C. H. Waddington. Many of the principles of organicism remain in contemporary developmental biology, but they are rarely defined as such. A combination of genetic… 
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