Elkinsia gen. nov., a Late Devonian Gymnosperm with Cupulate Ovules

@article{Rothwell1989ElkinsiaGN,
  title={Elkinsia gen. nov., a Late Devonian Gymnosperm with Cupulate Ovules},
  author={Gar W Rothwell and Stephen E. Scheckler and William Honyman Gillespie},
  journal={Botanical Gazette},
  year={1989},
  volume={150},
  pages={170 - 189}
}
An extensive collection of fossilized ovules, ovulate cupules, and cupuliferous branching systems from late Devonian deposits of eastern West Virginia is described and named Elkinsia polymorpha gen. et sp. nov. Elkinsia cupules are borne at the tips of cruciately forking axes that show a moderate level of overtopping. Cupules are 1.0-1.8 cm long and 0.6-1.2 cm in maximum diameter. The cupule is constructed of slender axes that fork twice to produce four quarters; each quarter terminates in one… 
Latisemenia longshania, gen. et sp. nov., a new Late Devonian seed plant from China
TLDR
Latisemenia is the earliest known plant with ovules borne on the side of the fertile axis and may foreshadow the diverse ovule arrangements found among younger seed plant lineages that emerge in the Carboniferous.
Characterizing the Most Primitive Seed Ferns. I. A Reconstruction of Elkinsia polymorpha
TLDR
Elkinsia polymorpha is the first seed f Fern to be reconstructed from Devonian sediments and the first preovulate seed fern to be characterized as a plant, and represents an important evolutionary unit for ongoing phylogenetic studies of the origin of seed plants.
Thorezia vezerensisgen. et sp. nov., a new seed plant with multiovulate cupules from the Late Devonian of Belgium
TLDR
It is suggested here that the arid climatic conditions prevailing in eastern Laurussia favoured the development of diverse spermatophyte communities and contributed to reduced diversity and abundance of contemporaneous free-sporing plant diversity.
Were All Devonian Seeds Cupulate? A Reinvestigation of Pseudosporogonites hallei, Xenotheca bertrandii, and Aglosperma spp.
TLDR
The uniovulate cupule in Pseudosporogonites is distinct from multiovulate telomic cupules of other Devonian seeds and expands the phenotypic diversity seen during the earliest phase of seed plant radiation, which was geologically instantaneous.
Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov., a seed plant from the Upper Devonian of South China
TLDR
Cosmosperma Wang et al. represents the first Devonian ovules recovered from China or eastern Asia and further illustrates the diversity of early spermatophytes.
Distinguishing angiophytes from the earliest angiosperms: A Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian-Hauterivian) fruit-like reproductive structure.
TLDR
They show that nearly total ovule enclosure, a level of organization approaching angiospermy, was achieved by advanced seed ferns during the Mesozoic, and include tetrahedral seeds within cupule- or carpel-like structures.
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