Elite violence and elite numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: roots of the divergence

  title={Elite violence and elite numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: roots of the divergence},
  author={Thomas Keywood and Jorg Baten},
Our research expands earlier studies on elite human capital by widening the geographic scope and tracing the early roots of the European divergence. We present new evidence of elite numeracy in Europe since the sixth century CE. During the early medieval period, Western Europe had no advantage over the east, but the development of relative violence levels changed this. After implementing an instrumental variable strategy and a battery of robustness tests, we find a substantial relationship… 
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The Rise of Effective States in Europe
  • M. Dincecco
  • History, Economics
    The Journal of Economic History
  • 2015
This review article examines the development of state capacity—the extractive and productive power of states— in European history. To explain the historical evolution of state capacity, I focus on