Elite violence and elite numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: roots of the divergence

@article{Keywood2020EliteVA,
  title={Elite violence and elite numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: roots of the divergence},
  author={Thomas Keywood and Jorg Baten},
  journal={Cliometrica},
  year={2020},
  pages={1-71}
}
Our research expands earlier studies on elite human capital by widening the geographic scope and tracing the early roots of the European divergence. We present new evidence of elite numeracy in Europe since the sixth century CE. During the early medieval period, Western Europe had no advantage over the east, but the development of relative violence levels changed this. After implementing an instrumental variable strategy and a battery of robustness tests, we find a substantial relationship… 
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