Recombinant viral vectors are useful tools for AIDS vaccine development. However, expression of HIV-1 envelope genes using viral vectors has not been successful in the induction of potent neutralizing antibodies in vivo. We took advantage of the strong immunogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vector and expressed HIV-1 HXB2 gp120 gene in the recombinant VSV. Our results showed that HIV-1 gp120 protein expressed by the recombinant VSV retained the native conformation of the protein to some degree and was recognized by two well-characterized broad anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies b12, 2G12. We further showed that only one time intranasal immunization with the recombinant VSV led to production of anti-HIV-1 anti-sera in mice. In addition, we found that the anti-sera had the ability to neutralize not only HXB2 envelope-pseudotyped HIV-1 viruses but also HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses with JRFL envelopes. These results suggest that HIV-1 gp120 expressed by the recombinant VSV, in combination with the route of intranasal administration, is an effective strategy to evaluate the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope protein and its variants in mice.