Elevation of Urinary Norepinephrine/Cortisol Ratio in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  title={Elevation of Urinary Norepinephrine/Cortisol Ratio in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder},
  author={John W. Mason and Earl L. Giller and Thomas R. Kosten and Laurie Harkness},
  journal={The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
We have previously reported the unusual combination of low urinary free cortisol levels with high urinary norepinephrine excretion in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients in comparison with four other patient groups: major depressive disorder, endogenous type; bipolar I, manic; paranoid schizophrenia; undifferentiated schizophrenia. Cortisol levels alone did not distinguish PTSD from paranoid schizophrenia patients and norepinephrine levels alone did not distinguish PTSD from bipolar I… 

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Study results pointed to a significant correlation between increased catecholamine levels, decreased cortisol level and elevated MBFV in the circle of Willis vessels caused by cerebral vasospasm.

CSF norepinephrine concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Findings reveal the presence of greater CNS noradrenergic activity under baseline conditions in patients with chronic PTSD than in healthy subjects and directly link this pathophysiologic observation with the severity of the clinical posttraumatic stress syndrome.

Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence for Chronic Neuroendocrine Activation in Women

The norepinephrine-to-cortisol ratio was not significantly elevated in the PTSD+ diagnosed women in contrast to the findings reported for male PTSD patients, suggesting an important gender difference, an interaction between gender and age at onset of the traumatic experience, or physiological variation related to phase of the disorder.

Relationship of cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels with war-induced posttraumatic stress disorder in fathers and their offspring.

The authors only found decreased cortisol levels in offspring of veterans after rearranging the groups to reflect previous history of PTSD, and further studies are required to investigate the relationship between cortisol levels and the transgenerational effects of trauma and parental PTSD.

Urinary Catecholamines and Cortisol in Recent-Onset Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Motor Vehicle Accidents

The findings were interpreted as limited support for the generalizability of findings in men with chronic, combat-related PTSD and indicate the need for additional research on psychoendocrine assessment of traumatized women and specific dimensions of PTSD symptomatology.

Serum testosterone levels in post-traumatic stress disorder inpatients

PTSD patients do not show the relatively low testosterone levels seen in major depressive disorder patients, but instead align more closely with the schizophrenic patients with regard to the pituitary-gonadal system, and there is an indication that chronic basal testosterone levels in PTSD patients may be elevated in comparison with normal subjects.

Posttraumatic stress disorder, exposure to combat, and lower plasma cortisol among Vietnam veterans: findings and clinical implications.

  • J. Boscarino
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 1996
Morning serum cortisol was compared among Vietnam "theater" veterans and Vietnam "era" veterans to test the hypothesis that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder experience neuroendocrine system alterations, resulting in significantly lower plasma cortisol.

Alterations in Stress Reactivity After Long‐Term Treatment with Paroxetine in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Assessment of the effect of long‐term treatment with the selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine, on stress reactivity in patients with PTSD suggests that successful treatment with SSRI in chronic PTSD is associated with a trend for a decrease in baseline diurnal cortisol and with reduced cortisol reactivity to stress.

Biology of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence

  • P. Pervanidou
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • 2008
It is hypothesised that, in adults with chronic PTSD, low cortisol levels, together with high catecholamines, may reflect a late event in the natural history of the disorder, months or years after the trauma.

Psychogenic Lowering of Urinary Cortisol Levels Linked to Increased Emotional Numbing and a Shame-Depressive Syndrome in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

The psychoendocrine findings suggest that the relatively inconspicuous clinical feature of shame resulting from both the primary and secondary traumatizations is a particularly powerful, preoccupying, and overwhelming source of emotional engagement.