Elevation and the Morphology, Flight Energetics, and Foraging Ecology of Tropical Hummingbirds

  title={Elevation and the Morphology, Flight Energetics, and Foraging Ecology of Tropical Hummingbirds},
  author={P. Feinsinger and R. Colwell and J. Terborgh and S. B. Chaplin},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={481 - 497}
The power that a hummingbird must expend to hover increases with decreasing air density and therefore with increasing elevation. Equations are available for estimating this power output requirement and for computing the easily obtained parameter of wing disc loading (ratio of body weight to area of disc whose diameter is wing span), to which power output is directly related. We test four related predictions based on these equations and on empirical patterns of exploitation versus interference… Expand
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