Elevated urinary VCAM-1, P-selectin, soluble TNF receptor-1, and CXC chemokine ligand 16 in multiple murine lupus strains and human lupus nephritis.


In an effort to identify potential biomarkers in lupus nephritis, urine from mice with spontaneous lupus nephritis was screened for the presence of VCAM-1, P-selectin, TNFR-1, and CXCL16, four molecules that had previously been shown to be elevated in experimental immune nephritis, particularly at the peak of disease. Interestingly, all four molecules were… (More)


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