Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells, central memory T cells and class-switched B cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with anti-Hu antibody associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

@article{Jongste2013ElevatedNO,
  title={Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells, central memory T cells and class-switched B cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with anti-Hu antibody associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes},
  author={Adriaan H. Jongste and Marieke T. de Graaf and Patricia D. M. van den Broek and Jaco Kraan and Peter A. E. Sillevis Smitt and Jan Willem Gratama},
  journal={Journal of Neuroimmunology},
  year={2013},
  volume={258},
  pages={85-90}
}
Neuroimmunology of OMS and ANNA-1/anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndromes in a child with neuroblastoma
TLDR
A detailed neuroimmunologic profile of a child with both relapsing OMS and ANNA-1 paraneoplastic syndromes and neuroblastoma is provided.
The associations between serum vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 4 with the markers of blood–brain barrier breakdown in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
TLDR
The presence of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in seropositive patients does not affect serum markers of BBB breakdown, with the exception of the group without clinically demonstrated malignancy and patients with peripheral manifestation of PNS.
Role and Relevance of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cells in Diagnostics and Research: State-of-the-Art and Underutilized Opportunities
TLDR
Historical, specimen-intrinsic, methodological, and technical issues determining the state-of-the-art diagnostics of CSF cells are summarized and future perspectives for this underutilized window into meningeal and CNS immunity are outlined.
Immunopathogenesis of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with anti-Hu antibodies
TLDR
This work analyzes existing data on the mechanisms of loss of self tolerance and nervous tissue damage that underpin one of the most frequent PNDs, the anti-Hu syndrome, and proposes potential strategies aimed at blocking deleterious encephalitogenic immune responses while preserving the antineoplastic potential of treatment.
Current and future approaches for treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with well-characterized onconeural antibodies
TLDR
This review is focused on putative T-cell-mediated immunopathogenetic mechanisms and treatment of PNS associated with well-characterized onconeural Abs, which includes anti-Hu, Yo, CV2, Ri, Ma2, amphiphysin and anti-delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor.

References

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No evidence for circulating HuD-specific CD8+ T cells in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and Hu antibodies
TLDR
The results do not support a role for HuD-specific CD8+ T cells in Hu-PNS, and further studies should focus on the detection of circulating HuD and Class I HLA multimers in affected tissues.
No evidence for the presence of HuD-specific T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huassociated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
TLDR
The presence of HuDspecific T cells in the CSF of HuPNS patients was determined using the same state-of-the-art techniques as previously employed on HLA class I multimer technique and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays.
Three sensitive assays do not provide evidence for circulating HuD-specific T cells in the blood of patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with anti-Hu antibodies.
TLDR
It is suggested that either autoaggressive T cells in Hu-PNS are not targeted against HuD or that their numbers in the blood are too low for detection by highly sensitive techniques.
B and T cell imbalances in CSF of patients with Hu-antibody associated PNS
Imbalances in circulating lymphocyte subsets in Hu antibody associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
TLDR
Analysis of circulating lymphocyte subsets in untreated patients with SCLC, PNS and Hu antibodies provides further support for the involvement of T cells in the pathogenesis of Hu antibody associated PNS.
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TLDR
Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in CSF may contribute to orchestration of the local immune responses in patients with multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory neurological diseases and non-inflammatory neurological diseases.
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TLDR
Observations demonstrate the presence of an unusual noncytotoxic CD8+ T cell in patients with the Hu paraneoplastic syndrome and suggest that SCLC may evade tumor immune surveillance by skewing tumor antigen-specific T cells to this unusualnoncytolytic phenotype.
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TLDR
The role of B cells in autoimmune neurological disorders is reviewed and the experience to date with rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody against CD20, for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, autoimmune neuropathies, neuromyelitis optica, paraneoplastic neurological disorders, myasthenia gravis, and inflammatory myopathies is summarized.
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