Elevated circulating levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with hemodynamically significant pressure and volume overload.

@article{Kapadia2000ElevatedCL,
  title={Elevated circulating levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with hemodynamically significant pressure and volume overload.},
  author={Samir R Kapadia and K Yakoob and Shahla Nader and James D. Thomas and Douglas L. Mann and Brian P. Griffin},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
  year={2000},
  volume={36 1},
  pages={208-12}
}
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine whether serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels are elevated in patients with hemodynamically significant pressure and volume overload. BACKGROUND It has been previously shown that TNF-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein are rapidly expressed in the hearts of animal models subjected to abrupt hemodynamic overloading. The clinical significance of these experimental findings has not been tested in pathophysiologically relevant… CONTINUE READING
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