Elements of Open Education: An Invitation to Future Research

  title={Elements of Open Education: An Invitation to Future Research},
  author={Olaf Zawacki-Richter and Dianne L. Conrad and Aras Bozkurt and Cengiz Hakan Aydin and Svenja Bedenlier and Insung Jung and Joachim St{\"o}ter and George Veletsianos and Lisa Marie Blaschke and Melissa Bond and Andrea Broens and Elisa Bruhn and Carina Dolch and Marco Kalz and Michael Kerres and Yasar Kondakci and Victoria I. Mar{\'i}n and Kerstin Mayrberger and Wolfgang M{\"u}skens and Som Naidu and Adnan Qayyum and Jennifer J. Roberts and Albert Sangr{\`a} and Frank Senyo Loglo and Patricia J. Slagter van Tryon and Junhong Xiao},
  journal={The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning},
This paper explores elements of open education within the context of higher education. After an introduction to the origins of open education and its theoretical foundations, the topics of open and distance learning, international education issues in open education, open educational practices and scholarship, open educational resources, MOOCs, prior learning accreditation and recognition, and learner characteristics are considered, following the framework of macro, meso, and micro levels of… 
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