Elementary excitations in dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates

  title={Elementary excitations in dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates},
  author={Jukka A. M. Huhtamaki and Pekko Kuopanportti},
  journal={Physical Review A},
We have numerically solved the low-energy excitation spectra of ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensates subject to dipolar interparticle interactions. The system is assumed to be harmonically confined by purely optical means, thereby maintaining the spin degree of freedom of the condensate order parameter. Using a zero-temperature spin-1 model, we solve the Bogoliubov excitations for different spin textures, including a spin-vortex state in the absence of external magnetic fields and a rapidly… 
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