Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

@article{Schroeder2014ElectronicCA,
  title={Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology},
  author={Megan J. Schroeder and Allison C. Hoffman},
  journal={Tobacco Control},
  year={2014},
  volume={23},
  pages={ii30 - ii35}
}
Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference… 
Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure from Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach
TLDR
A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinines concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates.
E-cigarettes: Impact of E-liquid Components and Device Characteristics on Nicotine Exposure
TLDR
This review focuses on factors which may impact nicotine exposure by changing e-cigarette use behavior, puff topography, altering the nicotine yield or more directly by altering nicotine absorption and bioavailability.
E-cigarette Nicotine Delivery: Data and Learnings from Pharmacokinetic Studies.
TLDR
Heterogeneity of nicotine deliveries both between products and also with the same products used by different cohorts, eg, accustomed users versus smokers, must be taken into account when determining the likely behavioral impact of nicotine delivery data and when planning e-cigarette nicotine pharmacokinetic studies.
Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
  • C. Bullen
  • Medicine
    Current Cardiology Reports
  • 2014
TLDR
If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.
NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.
TLDR
This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes, and identifies the research needs identified by participants.
A randomised, open-label, cross-over clinical study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of cigarettes and e-cigarettes with nicotine salt formulations in US adult smokers
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, while delivering less nicotine than a conventional cigarette, the use of nicotine salts in e-cigarettes enables cigarette-like pulmonary delivery of nicotine that reduces desire to smoke.
Electronic Cigarettes
TLDR
The otolaryngology community is introduced to the current state of research regarding electronic cigarettes, with special attention paid to mechanism, impact on health and addiction, and use in smoking cessation.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects
TLDR
Under these acute testing conditions, neither of the electronic cigarettes exposed users to measurable levels of nicotine or CO, although both suppressed nicotine/tobacco abstinence symptom ratings and increased product acceptability ratings.
Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users
TLDR
These findings demonstrate reliable blood nicotine delivery after the acute use of this brand/model of e-cigarette in a sample of regular users, and Tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were significantly reduced.
Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving suppression after acute administration
TLDR
This study examined how two brands of electronic nicotine delivery devices (E-cigarettes) influence plasma nicotine levels, heart rate and cigarette craving in cigarette smokers, and compared these effects to those produced by smokers' usual brand of cigarettes.
EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study
TLDR
In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects.
Saliva cotinine levels in users of electronic cigarettes
TLDR
ENDS do attenuate craving for tobacco, but appear to deliver little nicotine to the blood, and it is possible that serum nicotine levels would have been similar in ENDS and inhaler users, had ENDS users been allowed to use the devices for 20 min as for the inhaler.
Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administration.
TLDR
Examination of the effects of ECs in experienced users who were using their preferred devices found increases in ratings of direct effects of nicotine and product were observed as well as decreases in abstinence symptoms.
Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes.
TLDR
In ECs, which vaporize nicotine effectively, the amount inhaled from 15 puffs is lower compared with smoking a conventional cigarette, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization.
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality
TLDR
The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed, and for all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes.
Dependence on tobacco and nicotine products: a case for product-specific assessment.
  • K. Fagerström, T. Eissenberg
  • Medicine
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2012
TLDR
It is hypothesize that there is a continuum of dependence as much as there isA continuum of harm, with tobacco cigarettes and NR products on opposite ends of both continua and other products (waterpipe and ECIGs) somewhere in between.
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