Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

@article{Schroeder2014ElectronicCA,
  title={Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology},
  author={Megan J. Schroeder and Allison C. Hoffman},
  journal={Tobacco Control},
  year={2014},
  volume={23},
  pages={ii30 - ii35}
}
Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference… 

Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure from Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach

TLDR
A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinines concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates.

E-cigarettes: Impact of E-liquid Components and Device Characteristics on Nicotine Exposure

TLDR
This review focuses on factors which may impact nicotine exposure by changing e-cigarette use behavior, puff topography, altering the nicotine yield or more directly by altering nicotine absorption and bioavailability.

E-cigarette Nicotine Delivery: Data and Learnings from Pharmacokinetic Studies.

TLDR
Heterogeneity of nicotine deliveries both between products and also with the same products used by different cohorts, eg, accustomed users versus smokers, must be taken into account when determining the likely behavioral impact of nicotine delivery data and when planning e-cigarette nicotine pharmacokinetic studies.

NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.

TLDR
This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes, and identifies the research needs identified by participants.

A randomised, open-label, cross-over clinical study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of cigarettes and e-cigarettes with nicotine salt formulations in US adult smokers

TLDR
It is demonstrated that, while delivering less nicotine than a conventional cigarette, the use of nicotine salts in e-cigarettes enables cigarette-like pulmonary delivery of nicotine that reduces desire to smoke.

Electronic Cigarettes

TLDR
The otolaryngology community is introduced to the current state of research regarding electronic cigarettes, with special attention paid to mechanism, impact on health and addiction, and use in smoking cessation.

Chronic electronic cigarette exposure in mice induces features of COPD in a nicotine-dependent manner

TLDR
The effects of exposure to aerosolised nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-cigarette fluid on mouse lungs and normal human airway epithelial cells were nicotine-dependent, suggesting that inhaled nicotine contributes to airway and lung disease in addition to its addictive properties.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES

A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects

TLDR
Under these acute testing conditions, neither of the electronic cigarettes exposed users to measurable levels of nicotine or CO, although both suppressed nicotine/tobacco abstinence symptom ratings and increased product acceptability ratings.

Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving suppression after acute administration

TLDR
This study examined how two brands of electronic nicotine delivery devices (E-cigarettes) influence plasma nicotine levels, heart rate and cigarette craving in cigarette smokers, and compared these effects to those produced by smokers' usual brand of cigarettes.

Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes.

TLDR
In ECs, which vaporize nicotine effectively, the amount inhaled from 15 puffs is lower compared with smoking a conventional cigarette, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization.

Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality

TLDR
The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed, and for all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes.

Dependence on tobacco and nicotine products: a case for product-specific assessment.

  • K. FagerströmT. Eissenberg
  • Medicine
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2012
TLDR
It is hypothesize that there is a continuum of dependence as much as there isA continuum of harm, with tobacco cigarettes and NR products on opposite ends of both continua and other products (waterpipe and ECIGs) somewhere in between.

Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function

TLDR
Regarding short-term usage, the studied e-cigarettes generate smaller changes in lung function but similar nicotinergic impact to tobacco cigarettes, and future research should target the health effects of long-term e-cigarette usage, including the effects of nicotine dosage.

Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial

TLDR
The 16 mg Ruyan V8 ENDD alleviated desire to smoke after overnight abstinence, was well tolerated and had a pharmacokinetic profile more like the Nicorette inhalator than a tobacco cigarette.

ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE CARTRIDGES, REFILL SOLUTIONS, AND SMOKE FOR NICOTINE AND NICOTINE RELATED IMPURITIES

The objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the

Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes

TLDR
The findings of this study are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants.