Electronic Cigarette Use and Metabolic Syndrome Development: A Critical Review

  title={Electronic Cigarette Use and Metabolic Syndrome Development: A Critical Review},
  author={Ilona G{\'o}rna and Marta Napierała and Ewa Florek},
The metabolic syndrome is a combination of several metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modifications, including quitting smoking, are recommended to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated complications. Not much research has been conducted in the field of e-cigarettes and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, taking into account the influence of e-cigarettes vaping on the individual components of metabolic… 
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Association between dual smoking and dyslipidemia in South Korean adults
This study suggests that along with conventional cigarettes, dual smoking negatively impacts dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation of evert types is necessary for a healthy life.
Investigation of the Association between Smoking Behavior and Metabolic Syndrome Using Lipid Accumulation Product Index among South Korean Adults
Dual and single smoking were significantly associated with higher LAP, a strong predictor of metabolic syndrome, and further studies and awareness regarding the adverse effects of dual smoking are required.
Differential Effects of ‘Vaping’ on Lipid and Glucose Profiles and Liver Metabolic Markers in Obese Versus Non-obese Mice
E-vapour reduced fat mass in HFD-fed mice; only nicotine-containing e-vAPour improved glucose tolerance; and changes in liver metabolic markers may be adaptive responses rather than causal.
Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by Vaping and Cigarette Smoking
Overall, e-cig vaping dysregulated TCA cycle realted metabolites while cigarette smoking altered sphingolipid metabolites could serve as potential systemic biomarkers for early cardiopulmonary diseases.
Dysregulated Metabolites Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Metabolic Diseases Caused by E-Cigarette Vaping and Cigarette Smoking
E-cig vaping dysregulated TCA cycle-related metabolites while cigarette smoking altered sphingolipid metabolites, and both e-cig and cigarette smoke increased nicotinic metabolites.


Cigarette type or smoking history: Which has a greater impact on the metabolic syndrome and its components?
Sex differences were found in the association between smoking behavior and MetS and reveal sociodemographic differences that should be considered for interventions regarding conventional and/or e-cigarette users at risk of metabolic complications.
Effect of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on plasma lipoproteins and associated major cardiovascular risk factors: a narrative review
This narrative review considers the relationship between cigarette smoking and CVD, and discusses disease states and/or CVD risk factors related to smoking, such as dyslipidaemia, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as their complex interrelations.
Associations of Smoking Cessation With Visceral Fat Area and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Men: The Hitachi Health Study
Weight gain after smoking cessation may deteriorate metabolic risk profiles, including that for metabolic syndrome, and smoking cessation is associated with a deterioration of the metabolic risk profile, which can be ascribed to an increase in VFA not SFA.
Nicotine and Insulin Resistance: When the Smoke Clears
This study suggests that individuals who quit smoking are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and that this risk is highest in the first 2 years after smoking cessation, but that risk declines after this point until no excess risk is observed at 12 years after cessation.
Tobacco Use, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
The role smoking plays in causing diabetes may be more complicated than originally thought and warrants more in-depth large contemporary multi-ethnic studies.
Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction.
Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance.
Evaluating the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance found that nicotine increases energy expenditure and could reduce appetite may explain why smokers tend to have lower body weight than do nonsmokers and why smoking cessation is frequently followed by weight gain.
Active Smoking and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
A meta-analysis of 13 studies involving 56,691 participants and 8,688 cases detected a significant positive association between active smoking and risk of metabolic syndrome.
Electronic cigarettes and insulin resistance in animals and humans: Results of a controlled animal study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2016)
E-cigarettes do not appear to be linked with insulin resistance, and sole E-cigarette users showed no significant difference in HOMA-IR or GTT levels following adjustment for age, sex, race, physical activity, alcohol use and BMI.