Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space

  title={Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space},
  author={James L. Burch and Roy B. Torbert and Tai D. Phan and L.‐J. Chen and Thomas Earle Moore and Robert E. Ergun and Jonathan P. Eastwood and Daniel J. Gershman and Paul A. Cassak and Matthew R. Argall and S. Wang and Michael Hesse and Craig J. Pollock and Barbara L. Giles and Rumi Nakamura and Barry H. Mauk and Stephen Anthony Fuselier and Christopher T. Russell and Robert J. Strangeway and James F. Drake and Michael A. Shay and Yu. V. Khotyaintsev and Per Arne Lindqvist and G{\"o}ran Marklund and Frederick Durand Wilder and David T. Young and Klaus Torkar and Jerry Goldstein and John C. Dorelli and Levon A. Avanov and Mitsuo Oka and Daniel N. Baker and Allison N. Jaynes and Katherine Amanda Goodrich and Ian James Cohen and Drew L. Turner and Joseph F. Fennell and J. Bernard Blake and James H. Clemmons and M. V. Goldman and David L. Newman and Steven Petrinec and Karlheinz J. Trattner and Beno{\^i}t Lavraud and Patricia H. Reiff and Wolfgang Baumjohann and Werner Magnes and Manfred Steller and William S. Lewis and Y. Saito and Victoria N. Coffey and M. Chandler},
Probing magnetic reconnection in space Magnetic reconnection occurs when the magnetic field permeating a conductive plasma rapidly rearranges itself, releasing energy and accelerating particles. Reconnection is important in a wide variety of physical systems, but the details of how it occurs are poorly understood. Burch et al. used NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to probe the plasma properties within a reconnection event in Earth's magnetosphere (see the Perspective by Coates). They… 
Electron-scale dynamics of the diffusion region during symmetric magnetic reconnection in space
The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission used to probe a reconnection event in Earth's magnetotail—the region of plasma downstream from the planet as it moves through the solar wind, measuring plasma properties on scales of the electron dynamics, leading to insights that will apply in other regions where magnetic reconnection occurs.
Connecting the dots in magnetic reconnection
Four formation-flying spacecraft reveal the 3D electron physics of magnetic reconnection using a constellation of four spacecraft in close proximity, with unprecedentedly fast electron measurements to reveal what triggers reconnection and the vital role that electrons play on the small scale.
Electron magnetic reconnection without ion coupling in Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath
Observations of electron-scale current sheets in Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath reveal electron reconnection without ion coupling, contrary to expectations from the standard model of magnetic reconnection.
Observational Aspects of Magnetic Reconnection at the Earth’s Magnetosphere
Magnetic field reconnection has shown to be the dominant process in the solar wind-Earth’s magnetosphere interaction. It enables mass, momentum, and energy exchange between different plasma regimes,
Magnetic Reconnection in the Space Sciences: Past, Present, and Future
Magnetic reconnection converts, often explosively, stored magnetic energy to particle energy in space and in the laboratory. Through processes operating on length scales that are tiny, it facilitates
Magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics
Experimental observation of magnetic reconnection in laser-produced plasma and the role of electron scaling on reconnection are reported.
Understanding the dynamics and energetics of magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma: Review of recent progress on selected fronts
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process at work in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas, in which magnetic field lines change their topology and convert magnetic energy to plasma
Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause: Advances with MMS
Magnetic reconnection is known to be an important process for coupling solar wind mass and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection is initiated in an electron‐scale
Properties of the Turbulence Associated with Electron-only Magnetic Reconnection in Earth’s Magnetosheath
Turbulent plasmas generate intense current structures, which have long been suggested as magnetic reconnection sites. Recent Magnetospheric Multiscale observations in Earth's magnetosheath revealed a
Fluid and kinetic aspects of magnetic reconnection and some related magnetospheric phenomena
Magnetic field reconnection plays a key role in determining the magnetic field topology and in the conversion of magnetic energy into kinetic energy in cosmic plasmas. Magnetic reconnection was


In situ detection of collisionless reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail
The serendipitous encounter of the Wind spacecraft with an active reconnection diffusion region is reported, in which are detected key processes predicted by models of collisionless reconnection in the magnetotail.
Extended magnetic reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause from detection of bi-directional jets
In situ two-spacecraft observations of bi-directional jets at the magnetopause find evidence for a stable and extended reconnection line, and conclude that reconnection is determined by large-scale interactions between the solar wind and the magnetosphere, rather than by local conditions at the Magnetopause.
Magnetospheric Multiscale Overview and Science Objectives
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft constellation mission launched on March 12, 2015, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere,
Structure of the magnetic reconnection diffusion region from four-spacecraft observations.
Four-spacecraft observations of a diffusion region encounter at the Earth's magnetopause are reported that allow us to reliably distinguish spatial from temporal features and it is found that the diffusion region is stable on ion time and length scales in agreement with numerical simulations.
Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in an Asymmetric Current Sheet: Implications for Magnetopause Reconnection
[1] The process of collisionless magnetic reconnection in an ion-scale current sheet containing strong gradients in the density and magnetic field strength across the layer is investigated using
Construction of magnetic reconnection in the near‐Earth magnetotail with Geotail
[1] The Geotail spacecraft made in situ observations of magnetic reconnection on 15 May 2003 in the near-Earth magnetotail at a radial distance of 28 RE when a moderate substorm started on the
Kinetic signatures of the region surrounding the X line in asymmetric (magnetopause) reconnection
Kinetic particle‐in‐cell simulations are used to identify signatures of the electron diffusion region (EDR) and its surroundings during asymmetric magnetic reconnection. A “shoulder” in the sunward
The Structure of The Magnetopause
Energy Conversion and Inventory of a Prototypical Magnetic Reconnection layer
A comparative review study is made to find basic mechanisms of energy conversion and partitioning in a prototypical magnetic reconnection layer. The recent results from three different disciplines,
Electron energization and structure of the diffusion region during asymmetric reconnection
Results from particle‐in‐cell simulations of reconnection with asymmetric upstream conditions are reported to elucidate electron energization and structure of the electron diffusion region (EDR).