Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions

@article{Dubochet1982ElectronMO,
  title={Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions},
  author={Jacques Dubochet and Jean Lepault and R. Freeman and John A. Berriman and J C Homo},
  journal={Journal of Microscopy},
  year={1982},
  volume={128}
}
Thin layers of pure water or aqueous solutions are frozen in the vitreous state or with the water phase in the form of hexagonal or cubic crystals, either by using a spray‐freezing method or by spreading the liquid on alkylamine treated films. The specimens are observed in a conventional and in a scanning transmission electron microscope at temperatures down to 25 K. In general, the formation of crystals and segregation of solutes during freezing, devitrification and evaporation upon warming… 

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