Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions

  title={Electron microscopy of frozen water and aqueous solutions},
  author={Jacques Dubochet and Jean Lepault and R. Freeman and John A. Berriman and J C Homo},
  journal={Journal of Microscopy},
Thin layers of pure water or aqueous solutions are frozen in the vitreous state or with the water phase in the form of hexagonal or cubic crystals, either by using a spray‐freezing method or by spreading the liquid on alkylamine treated films. The specimens are observed in a conventional and in a scanning transmission electron microscope at temperatures down to 25 K. In general, the formation of crystals and segregation of solutes during freezing, devitrification and evaporation upon warming… 

Electron microscopy of frozen biological suspensions

It is shown that optimum structural preservation is obtained from a thin, quench‐frozen film with the bulk aqueous medium in the vitreous state, and frozen‐hydrated, freeze-dried or sugar embedded crystals can withstand a three‐ to four‐fold increase in electron exposure for the same damage when compared with similar sugar‐embedded or freeze‐dried samples at room temperature.

Freezing of aqueous specimens: an X‐ray diffraction study

The effects on water of two cooling methods, immersion in a liquid cryogen and high‐pressure freezing, were studied by X‐ray cryodiffraction on different sucrose solutions. The nature of the ice

A transmission electron microscopy study of hexagonal ice

The morphologies of fast-frozen, thin-film samples of pure and dilute solutions of salts and surfactants in hexagonal ice are investigated with transmission electron microscopy. The cold-stage

Electron microscopy of frozen hydrated sections of vitreous ice and vitrified biological samples

The preparation and high resolution observation of frozen hydrated thin sections has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM) on model systems, including pure water, protein

Dynamic hydration effects in an electron microscope cold stage.

During measurements of the mass thickness of thin collodion film specimens at low temperatures, it was found that a volatile surface layer (condensed water) modified the apparent rate of mass loss induced by radiation exposure.

Electron microscopy studies of amphiphilic self‐assemblies on vitreous ice

The structure of self-assemblies of amphiphiles formed at the air–aqueous solution interface can be determined by cryo transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The method is based on fast

Development of microcapsules for electron microscopy and their application to dynamical observation of liquid crystals in transmission electron microscopy

Microcapsules made of hard carbon films were fabricated for electron microscopic observations of liquid-like samples such as biological cells/molecules in water solution and liquid crystals.

X‐ray microanalysis of ion distribution in frozen salt/dextran droplets after freeze‐substitution and embedding in anhydrous conditions

The need to avoid water contamination not only during freeze‐substitution but also during sectioning, storage and section transfer to the electron microscope is emphasized.

Electron cryo‐microscopy of vitrified bulk biological specimens: ideal and real structures of water—lipid phases

It is shown that the water of aqueous lipid phases, in the concentration range of 10–30% (water weight/total weight), is vitrified by high‐pressure freezing.



Complete vitrification in pure liquid water and dilute aqueous solutions

Pure water can only be vitrified by the very slow condensation of vapour on a metal surface maintained at very low temperatures1,2. Attempts to form vitreous ice by rapid cooling of liquid water

The cubic and other structural forms of ice at low temperature and pressure

Deposits have been prepared by injecting water vapour on to a base at low temperatures in an electron-diffraction camera. Three types of diffraction patterns are found, depending on the temperature

Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review

The question of radiation damage at low temperatures has been investigated with the view in mind of reducing somewhat the rate at which damage occurs, relative to the damage rate at room temperature.

Non-equilibrium freezing behaviour of aqueous systems.

  • A. Mackenzie
  • Materials Science
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1977
The findings on modle systems aid the identification of the kinetic and thermodynamic factors responsible for the freezing-thawing survival of living cells.

Hexagonal and Cubic Ice at Low Temperatures

  • M. Kumai
  • Materials Science
    Journal of Glaciology
  • 1968
Abstract The formation of hexagonal and cubic forms of ice was studied by the use of a cold stage in an electron microscope within the temperature range −90° to −180° C. Ice crystal specimens were

Subliming Ice Surfaces: Freeze-Etch Electron Microscopy

Vacuum sublimation of oriented single crystals of ice at temperatures from -110 to -60 degrees Celsius was studied by electron microscopy with the freeze-etch technique and pits and asperities could not be attributed to impurities.

Electron Beam Heating Temperature Profiles in Moderately Thick Cold Stage STEM/SEM Specimens

The analytic solution for the model of electron beam heating a moderately thick STEM/SEM specimen was used to calculate the steady state temperature profiles developed in the bulk of the specimen.