Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

  title={Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites},
  author={Alexander L. Vasiliev and Mikhail V. Kovalchuk and Ekaterina Yatsishina},
  journal={Crystallography Reports},
The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it… 

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Recent advances in electron imaging, image interpretation and applications: environmental scanning electron microscopy

  • D. Stokes
  • Materials Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2003
The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) enables soft, moist and/or electrically insulating materials to be viewed without pre–treatment, unlike conventional scanning electron microscopy, in which specimens must be solid, dry and usually electrically conductive.

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