Electron Observations and Ion Flows from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment

@article{Intriligator1979ElectronOA,
  title={Electron Observations and Ion Flows from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment},
  author={Devrie S. Intriligator and H. R. Collard and John D. Mihalov and Robert C. Whitten and John H. Wolfe},
  journal={Science},
  year={1979},
  volume={205},
  pages={116 - 119}
}
Additional plasma measurements in the vicinity of Venus are presented which show that (i) there are three distinct plasma electron populations—solar wind electrons, ionosheath electrons, and nightside ionosphere electrons; (ii) the plasma ion flow pattern in the ionosheath is consistent with deflected flow around a blunt obstacle; (iii) the plasma ion flow velocities near the downstream wake may, at times, be consistent with the deflection of plasma into the tail, closing the solar wind cavity… 
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References

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Initial results of observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus indicate that Venus has a well-defined, strong, standing bow shock wave. Downstream from the shock, an ionosheath is observed
Initial Observations of the Nightside Ionosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
TLDR
It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometers have returned the first in situ measurements of the Venus dayside ion composition, including evidence of pronounced structural variability resulting
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