Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft

  title={Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft},
  author={Roger E. Gold and Stamatios M. Krimigis and Samuel Edward Hawkins and Dennis K Haggerty and David A. Lohr and Enrichetta Maria Fiore and Thomas P. Armstrong and Glenn Holland and Louis J. Lanzerotti},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
The Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) is designed to make measurements of ions and electrons over a broad range of energy and intensity. Through five separate solid-state detector telescopes oriented so as to provide nearly full coverage of the unit-sphere, EPAM can uniquely distinguish ions (Ei≳50 keV) and electrons (Ee≳40 keV) providing the context for the measurements of the high sensitivity instruments on ACE. Using a ΔE×E telescope, the instrument can determine ion elemental… 
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