Electromyography assessment in zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures
This study, using surface electromyography, analyzed the activity of the masseter muscles of 30 patients with facial bone fractures that were surgically treated. Evaluations were made before surgery and in the 7th, 30th, and 60th days after surgery. The value of each measure and the average of 3 maximum voluntary isometric contractions lasting 5 seconds each were registered, and statistical analyses were performed. Patients had a mean age of 31 years and an average of 1.33 fractures. They were grouped according to the type of fracture as follows: mandibular (50%), zygomatic complex (33%), maxilla (10%), and associated fractures (6.7%). There was a lower masseter activity in the preoperative period, when compared with normal values in all groups of fractures. There was a sharp drop in the masseter activity in the postoperative period of 7 days, and all groups showed recovery of activity in 60 days but still below the normal value referenced in the literature. The mean values of the masseter activity, in descending order, were from the zygomatic complex, mandibular, maxillary, and associated fractures. The unilateral mandibular fractures showed higher values than the bilateral fractures in most of the evaluations. There was a highly significant difference in the comparison of the evolution of the masseter activity on both sides, for mandibular and zygomatic complex fractures, and the pairwise comparison showed significant difference between most groups. It was concluded that facial fractures and surgical procedures had negative effects in the muscle activity as observed using electromyography.