Electrolyte disturbances in chronic heart failure: metabolic and clinical aspects.


The pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF) includes conditions (e.g., activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) which, when combined with CHF therapies, make patients afflicted with this syndrome quite susceptible to electrolyte disturbances. The most commonly encountered are hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. These… (More)


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