Following the pioneering work of C. Dreyfus-Brisac and N. Monod, research into neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) has developed tremendously in France. French neurophysiologists who had been trained in Paris (France) collaborated on a joint project on the introduction, development, and currently available neonatal EEG recording techniques. They assessed the analytical criteria for the different maturational stages and standardized neonatal EEG terminology on the basis of the large amount of data available in the French and the English literature. The results of their work were presented in 1999. Since the first edition, technology has moved towards the widespread use of digitized recordings. Although the data obtained with analog recordings can be applied to digitized EEG tracings, the present edition, including new published data, is illustrated with digitized recordings. Herein, the reader can find a comprehensive description of EEG features and neonatal behavioural states at different gestational ages, and also a definition of the main aspects and patterns of both pathological and normal EEGs, presented in glossary form. In both sections, numerous illustrations have been provided. This precise neonatal EEG terminology should improve homogeneity in the analysis of neonatal EEG recordings, and facilitate the setting up of multicentric studies on certain aspects of normal EEG recordings and various pathological patterns.