Electroconvulsive Therapy Improves Persistent Psychosis After Repeated Use of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (“Bath Salts”)

  title={Electroconvulsive Therapy Improves Persistent Psychosis After Repeated Use of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (“Bath Salts”)},
  author={Thomas M Penders and Michael C Lang and Joshua Pagano and Zane S Gooding},
  journal={The Journal of ECT},
Abstract The use of synthetic cathinone drugs, known popularly as “bath salts,” may lead to persistent visual hallucinations and paranoia with repeated use. This is the first case report known to the authors suggesting that such symptoms may persist despite discontinuing the use of psychoactive bath salts. As is the case with other such symptoms associated with use of stimulant drugs of abuse, these symptoms are resistant to pharmacologic treatment, and electroconvulsive therapy can be a useful… 

Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone

The case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months is reported, with paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications described.

Psychiatric Profiles and Clinical Manifestations of Cathinone Users: Case Series of Analytically Confirmed Cathinone Use in Taiwan

  • Lian-Yu Chen
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Addiction & Addictive Disorders
  • 2019
There is an urgent need to educate the health professionals and the public on the danger and the complex face of NPS in Taiwan, as six treatment-seeking psychiatric patients whose urine samples were analytically confirmed with cathinone use.

Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

It is important to educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients, and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage.

Designer drugs in psychiatric practice - a review of the literature and the recent situation in Hungary.

  • E. SzilyI. Bitter
  • Medicine
    Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica : a Magyar Pszichofarmakologiai Egyesulet lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology
  • 2013
The aims of this paper are to summarize the most important general information about some widely used designer drugs (synthetic cathinones and cannabinoids) to draw attention to present and upcoming trends of substance abuse patterns; and to highlight the importance and consequences of these trends in every day clinical practice.

Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain that represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse in the recreational drug market.

Pharmacotherapy of Patients Taking New Psychoactive Substances: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Case Reports

The pharmacotherapy for NPS poisoning should focus primarily on combating psychomotor agitation, according to the case reports published between 2010 and 2019.

Novel psychoactive substances: types, mechanisms of action, and effects

The Psychoactive Substances Bill banned trading but not possession of all current and future novel psychoactive substances (NPS), sometimes incorrectly called “legal highs,” in an attempt to overcome rapid proliferation of these compounds.

Substance Related and Addictive Disorders

Substance abuse is a major problem in consultation liaison psychiatry, disproportionate to the degree of substance abuse in the community. Twenty to thirty percent of consultations in a general



Treatment of Phencyclidine-Associated Psychosis with ECT.

Electroconvulsive therapy should be considered as a treatment early in the course of drug-associated psychoses in which an adequate trial of antipsychotic medication has not been effective, reports three cases of PCP-associated psychosis.

Psychopharmacology of Repeated Seizures: Possible Relevance to the Mechanism of Action of Electroconvulsive Therapy

The last few years have seen a marked increase in the research on the biochemical and pharmacological consequences of repeated electroconvulsive shock, so it seems reasonable to determine whether the experimental effects of ECS are similar to those of the drugs.

Remission of persistent methamphetamine-induced psychosis after electroconvulsive therapy: presentation of a case and review of the literature.

American clinicians should be alert to the possibility of methamphetamine psychosis and may wish to consider ECT in refractory cases, according to the large international literature on methamphetamine psychosis.

Hallucinatory delirium following use of MDPV: "Bath Salts".

An Overview of Methamphetamine-induced Psychotic Syndromes

Most cases of methamphetamine-induced psychosis resolve spontaneously within 10 days of abstinence, but a minority of patients will continue to experience chronic symptoms of psychosis distinct from syndromes of primary psychotic disorders.

The prevalence of psychotic symptoms among methamphetamine users.

The prevalence of psychosis among the current sample of methamphetamine users was 11 times higher than among the general population in Australia, and Dependent methamphetamine users are a particularly high-risk group for psychosis.

Powerful Cocaine-Like Actions of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a Principal Constituent of Psychoactive ‘Bath Salts’ Products

The data show that MDPV is a monoamine transporter blocker with increased potency and selectivity for catecholamines when compared with cocaine, and may provide a mechanism to explain the adverse effects observed in humans taking high doses of ‘bath salts’ preparations.

Partial recovery of brain metabolism in methamphetamine abusers after protracted abstinence.

The results suggest that while protracted abstinence may reverse some of the methamphetamine-induced alterations in brain function, other deficits persist and the recovery of thalamic metabolism could reflect adaptation responses to compensate for the dopamine deficits.

“Bath Salts” Intoxication

In early 2011, a Michigan poison control center received reports of several patients injecting, inhaling, or ingesting “bath salts” as recreational

National Survey on Drug Use and Health

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (formerly, National Household Survey of Drug Abuse) is an annual national survey that provides information on prevalence and correlates of drug use within the United States.