Removal of carbamazepine from spiked municipal wastewater using electro-Fenton process.
The performance of the electrochemical oxidation process for efficient treatment of domestic wastewater loaded with organic matter was studied. The process was firstly evaluated in terms of its capability of producing an oxidant agent (H2O2) using amorphous carbon (or carbon felt) as cathode, whereas Ti/BDD electrode was used as anode. Relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (0.064 mM) was produced after 90 min of electrolysis time, at 4.0 A of current intensity and using amorphous carbon at the cathode. Factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively used to define the optimal operating conditions to reach maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Current intensity and electrolysis time were found to influence the removal of COD and color. The contribution of current intensity on the removal of COD and color was around 59.1 and 58.8%, respectively, whereas the contribution of treatment time on the removal of COD and color was around 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively. The electrochemical treatment applied under 3.0 A of current intensity, during 120 min of electrolysis time and using Ti/BDD as anode, was found to be the optimal operating condition in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these optimal conditions, the average removal rates of COD and color were 78.9 ± 2 and 85.5 ± 2 %, whereas 70% of total organic carbon removal was achieved.