Electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine worldwide

  title={Electricity and water consumption for laundry washing by washing machine worldwide},
  author={Christiane Pakula and Rainer Stamminger},
  journal={Energy Efficiency},
Washing laundry is one of the most widespread housework in the world. Today, washing machines do this work in many private households, using water, electricity, chemical substances, and process time. Although energy efficiency is in the focus of many regulations which have already achieved significant improvements, the question remains, how relevant these processes are in terms of the absolute impact on resources and whether there are possibilities to improve even further by looking abroad… 
Energy and water savings potential in automatic laundry washing processes
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Load profiles and flexibility in operation of washing machines and dishwashers in Europe
A semi-representative approach for 12 European countries was used to assess actual consumer habits for the use of washing machines and dishwashers which could be used to calculate average load profiles for those appliances depending on the time of the day and allow aggregators or energy utilities to assign clear financial benefits to the shifting potential of those appliances.
Stock Model Based Bottom-up Accounting for Washing Machines: Worldwide Energy, Water and Greenhouse Gas Saving Potentials 2010–2030
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Choices and using of washing machines in Chinese households
Rapid urbanization and improvement in living standard skyrocket the demand for washing machines in Chinese households, especially in urban households. This paper discusses the owning rate of
Consumer laundry practices in Germany
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Life cycle assessment of horizontal-axis washing machines in China
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Impact of limestone incrustation on energy efficiency of washing machine
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How Effective are Alternative Ways of Laundry Washing?
Abstract Laundry washing consumes resources. It is therefore a clear task for everyone, especially the industry and the consumer, to try to reduce the amount of resources needed as much as possible.


Europe in Figures
This statistical appendix includes a series of statistics that draw an economic portrait of the European Union. It provides the reader with the latest data available at the time of writing this book,
Aktionstag Nachhaltiges Waschen : Was macht der Verbraucher?