Functional neurosurgery is a rapidly growing field with exciting future potential applications. This article describes currently used implanted electronic devices for neurologic stimulation and monitoring. The devices to be reviewed include invasive EEG electrodes, deep brain stimulator, motor cortex stimulator, responsive neurostimulation, osteo-integrated hearing aid, middle ear implant, cochlear implant, auditory brainstem implant, vagal nerve stimulator and spinal cord stimulator. Emphasis is placed on the normal components, function, positioning, potential complications and MRI safety of these devices. Understanding the motivations and appropriate use of these implantable devices is critical for clinical neuroradiologists to provide relevant imaging interpretation and protocols for patients and referring physicians.