Electrical signalling and systemic proteinase inhibitor induction in the wounded plant

  title={Electrical signalling and systemic proteinase inhibitor induction in the wounded plant},
  author={David C. Wildon and John F. Thain and Peter E. H. Minchin and I. R. Gubb and Ann Reilly and Y. D. Skipper and Helen M. Doherty and P. J. O'Donnell and Dianna J. Bowles},
THE wound response of several plant species involves the activation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes and the accumulation of pin proteins at the local site of injury and systemically throughout the unwounded aerial regions of the plant1,2. It has been suggested that a mobile chemical signal is the causal agent linking the local wound stimulus to the distant systemic response, and candidates such as oligosaccharides3, abscisic acid4 and a polypeptide5,6 have been put forward. But the speed of… 
Wound signalling in plants.
Different jasmonic acid-dependent and -independent wound signal transduction pathways have been identified recently and partially characterized, and include reversible protein phosphorylation steps, calcium/calmodulin-regulated events, and production of active oxygen species.
Signal transduction in the wound response of tomato plants.
  • D. Bowles
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1998
Current understanding of signalling pathways in the wounded leaf, and in the systemically responding unwounded leaves, is reviewed, and a new model for wound-induced pin gene expression is presented, arising from recent data from the author's laboratory.
Signals and Signalling Pathways in Plant Wound Responses
The main electrical events associated with severe wounds are action-potential-like depolarisations in the sieve-tube-element/companion cell complexes; these events are considered in relation to the use of the terms “action potential’ and “variation potential”.
This paper was presented at a colloquium entitled "Self-Defense by Plants: Induction and Signalling Pathways,"
Examination of photosynthetic parameters on several types of stimuli suggests that heat-induced Pin2 gene expression is regulated by an alternative pathway from that mediating the electrical current and mechanical wound response.
Evidence for Physically Distinct Systemic Signalling Pathways in the Wounded Tomato Plant
The results indicate the participation of more than one signalling pathway in the systemic induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis by wounding, which is consistent with the translocation of elicitors in the phloem.
The pathway for systemic electrical signal conduction in the wounded tomato plant
It was concluded that the electrical signal possibly linking a wound stimulus in a cotyledon with the induction of systemic proteinase inhibitor synthesis was propagated in the sieve-tube element/companion cell complex.
Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation
It is shown that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors.
The relationship between wound‐induced proteinase inhibitors and hydraulic signals in tomato seedlings
It was shown that systemic hydraulic signals could be triggered, without significant wounding, by excision of a single leaflet through the submerged petiole, indicating that rapid hydraulic signals do not provide a specific signal of wounding, and demonstrate that hydraulic signals per se are not the PIIF.
Cross-talk between wound signalling pathways determines local versus systemic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.
It is shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, these signalling components interact in novel ways to activate distinct responses to injury, allowing the set up of different responses in the damaged and the systemic tissues of plants reacting to injury.


Surface potentials and hydraulic signals in wheat leaves following localized wounding by heat
It is demonstrated that, in the absence of wounding, pressure waves imposed at the tip of one leaf can travel to neighbouring leaves, and can there induce change in apoplastic electrical potential similar to a ‘variation potential’, which indicates that the hydraulic event produced by wounding is the signal responsible for systemic induction of the ‘Variation Potential’.
Action potentials as multifunctional signals in plants: a unifying hypothesis to explain apparently disparate wound responses
It is suggested that action potentials, which occur in most, if not all, plants, play a major role in intercellular and intracellular communication and may also be important signalling mechanisms for chilling injury, mechanical perturbation and invasion by pathogens, as well as for light and gravity.
Regulation of expression of proteinase inhibitor genes by methyl jasmonate and jasmonic Acid.
It is suggested that in response to wound signals generated by insect or pathogen attacks, linolenic acid is released into the cytoplasm from plant cell membrane lipids and is rapidly converted in cells to jasmonic acid, which serves as a signal to regulate the expression of proteinase inhibitor genes.
A Polypeptide from Tomato Leaves Induces Wound-Inducible Proteinase Inhibitor Proteins
It is established that a polypeptide factor can initiate signal transduction to regulate the synthesis of defensive proteins in plant tissues.
The role of pH and ion transport in oligosaccharide-induced proteinase inhibitor accumulation in tomato plants.
It was demonstrated that various agents known to influence ATPase activity and intracellular pH were able to inhibit PrI induction, and in particular the striking effect of low concentrations of fusicoccin onPrI induction was noted.
Octadecanoid Precursors of Jasmonic Acid Activate the Synthesis of Wound-Inducible Proteinase Inhibitors.
The results suggest that the octadecanoid intermediates may participate in a lipid-based signaling system that activates proteinase inhibitor synthesis in response to insect and pathogen attack.
Protease Inhibitors in Plants: Genes for Improving Defenses Against Insects and Pathogens
The inducible chemicals, which can also occur constitutively, include such complex sub­ stances as antibiotics, alkaloids, and terpenes, as well as proteins such as enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, and lectins, which have provided interesting systems for studying inducibles plant defense.
Phylogenetic Distribution and Mechanism of Translocation Inhibition by Chilling
It is found that inhibition of translocation by pathway chilling should not be assumed to occur in all species, and studies, therefore, which employ pathway chilling as a device for temporarily modifying patterns of assimilate flow must include a careful examination of the translocation behaviour of the species being used under the precise treatment conditions imposed.