Electrical recording from a glass sponge

  title={Electrical recording from a glass sponge},
  author={Sally P. Leys and George Owen Mackie},

Electrogenesis in the lower Metazoa and implications for neuronal integration

  • R. Meech
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2015
Electrogenic communication appears to have evolved independently in a variety of animal and plant lineages but the dearth of electrophysiological data relating to ctenophore nerves means that the attention is focused on the Cnidaria, whose nervous systems have been the subject of extensive study.

Glass sponges arrest pumping in response to sediment: implications for the physiology of the hexactinellid conduction system

It is shown in laboratory experiments (ex situ) that mechanical and sediment stimuli trigger immediate arrest in R. dawsoni and in a second species of hexactinellid, Aphrocallistes vastus, suggesting that rapid signaling may be a general feature of glass sponge tissue.

Elements of a ‘nervous system’ in sponges

  • S. Leys
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2015
The elements of the sponge neural toolkit including sensory cells, conduction pathways, signalling molecules and the ionic basis of signalling seem to reflect an early specialization for suspension feeding, which fits with the presumed ecological framework in which the first animals evolved.

Physiology of coordination in sponges1

All multicellular organisms need a means of communicating between cells and between regions of the body. The evolution of a nervous system, by the Cnidaria, provided a fast means of communication and


Information is provided on the procedures used for making grafts and recording from them, together with information from new research carried out in 1997 on the properties of the conduction system.

Origin of the neuro-sensory system: new and expected insights from sponges.

Genetic analyses show that sponges possess genes orthologous to those involved in the patterning or functioning of the neuro-sensory system in Eumetazoa, and this gives rise to challenging hypotheses concerning cell types that might play neuro-Sensory-like roles in spongees.

The premetazoan ancestry of the synaptic toolkit and appearance of first neurons.

The occurrence and function of key aspects of neurons outside of animals as well as recent findings from non-bilaterian animals are highlighted in order to make predictions about when and how the first neuron(s) arose during animal evolution and their relationship to those found in extant lineages.

Evolution of synapses and neurotransmitter systems: The divide-and-conquer model for early neural cell-type evolution

It is hypothesised that the Unc13-RIM lineage ancestrally innervated the mouth and conquered other parts of the body with the rise of macrophagy and predation during the Cambrian explosion.

Sodium action potentials in placozoa: Insights into behavioral integration and evolution of nerveless animals.




Studies on Hexactinellid Sponges. I. Histology of Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni (Lambe, 1873)

It is confirmed that the trabecular tissue of Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni, which constitutes the bulk of the cellular material in the animal, is a syncytium, and a developmental sequence is proposed wherein the collar bodies and their interconnecting stolons are produced as outgrowths from choanoblasts, which may function singly or in syncyTial groups during this phase.

Studies on hexactinellid sponges. II. Excitability, conduction and coordination of responses in rhabdocalyptus dawsoni (lambe, 1873)

It is concluded that conduction must involve electrical impulses, and Numerous parallels exist with the behaviour of the stigmatal cilia in the ascidian branchial sac, both in the characteristics of the effector response and in the mechanism of coordination.

Epithelial conduction: Its properties and functions

Conduction system in a sponge.

The hexactinellid sponge Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni is capable of arresting its exhalant water current in response to mechanical and electrical stimuli. The arrest is coordinated by a conduction system

Cytoskeletal Architecture and Organelle Transport in Giant Syncytia Formed by Fusion of Hexactinellid Sponge Tissues.

  • S. Leys
  • Biology
    The Biological bulletin
  • 1995
The findings support the view that hexactinellids are syncytial organisms, probably the largest in the animal kingdom, and suggest that food products may be distributed through the sponge intracellularly rather than by wandering amoebocytes.