Electrical manipulation of the failing heart

@article{Zac2018ElectricalMO,
  title={Electrical manipulation of the failing heart},
  author={Valerio Zac{\`a} and Theodore M Murphy and Mauro Biffi},
  journal={Heart Failure Reviews},
  year={2018},
  volume={23},
  pages={885-896}
}
Chronic heart failure with reduced (≤ 40%) ejection fraction (HFrEF) poses a significant residual mortality risk despite modern optimal medical therapy. In the last decades, we have witnessed the introduction of breakthrough cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) aimed at addressing sudden cardiac death and HF progression in patients with HFrEF, leading to improved survival and functional capacity. Following their introduction, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and cardiac… CONTINUE READING
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