Electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower ionosphere

  title={Electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower ionosphere},
  author={Victor P. Pasko and Mark A. Stanley and John D. Mathews and Umran S. Inan and Troy G. Wood},
For over a century, numerous undocumented reports have appeared about unusual large-scale luminous phenomena above thunderclouds and, more than 80 years ago, it was suggested that an electrical discharge could bridge the gap between a thundercloud and the upper atmosphere. Since then, two classes of vertically extensive optical flashes above thunderclouds have been identified—sprites and blue jets. Sprites initiate near the base of the ionosphere, develop very rapidly downwards at speeds which… Expand

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