Cellular and subcellular localization of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1 receptors in the pancreas, gallbladder, and stomach of mice
Intracellular microelectrode and standard organ bath techniques were used to study in vitro the effects of three molecular forms of the peptide cholecystokinin on the electrical and mechanical activities of canine antral circular muscle. Three forms were studied: the carboxyl-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-OP), the molecule containing 33 amino acid residues (CCK33), and the peptide termed "cholecystokinin variant" that contains 39 amino acids (CCK39). All three forms increased the force and frequency of spontaneous contractions. They also increased the frequency and the amplitude and duration of the plateau of the gastric action potential. Atropine did not block any of these effects, suggesting that the action of these peptides was largely due to a direct action on the smooth muscle. Complete dose-response curves were determined for the effect of these peptides on the force and frequency of contraction for muscle strips and for the effect on amplitude of the plateau and frequency of the action potential for single cells. CCK39 and CCK-OP had similar potencies and both forms were more potent than CCK33.